DEPLOYMENT: Infectious SocioPatterns
The mission of the Science Gallery at the Trinity College in Dublin is to ignite creativity and discovery where science and art collide. It opened its doors in February 2008 and has since offered a changing programme of exhibitions, festivals and experiences. In 2009 the Science Gallery held four exhibitions, one of which was INFECTIOUS: Stay away. This exhibition investigated mechanisms of contagion and strategies of containment through science and art. It ran for three months.
Contributing to a better understanding of the spreading of infectious diseases has always been one of the research objectives of the SocioPatterns project. Given a human-to-human contact network, researchers can perform data-driven computer-based simulations of human-to-human infection spreading over that network. While the study of such infection dynamics considering the complex topology of cumulative contact networks is not new, the SocioPatterns project aims to contribute by enabling such studies on detailed datasets on physically grounded person-to-person contact that include the temporal dimension, allowing researchers to consider the causal order of contacts.
When the Science Gallery learned about the SocioPatterns project, they engaged us to consider a deployment in the INFECTIOUS exhibition. We gladly pursued this opportunity for a number of reasons. On one hand there was anticipated size of the dataset that could be collected during a deployment of that duration. But we were also very interested in the specific nature of the setting. The continuous flux of visitors forms a substrate for social interaction that is structurally different from those found in e.g. a school or a conference, but similar to those found in airports or train stations. Data on the person-to-person interactions in such a setting would thus form a scientifically relevant addition to our collection of datasets. As the organization of such a data collection operation is much more challenging because of the continuous flux of participants, the opportunity of partnering up with the Science Gallery to make it happen was consequently too good to not embrace.
To strengthen the engagement of the visitors, the behavior of the system was extended such that it became a continuous live simulation of the epidemic spreading of a contagious agent through person-to-person contact. Each badge worn by a visitor assumed one of two states: uninfected or infected. Upon entering the exhibition, the visitors’ badges were initially uninfected. The infected state, however, was contagious: uninfected badges could get infected when being near an infected badge. The current state of a badge was indicated by the blinking patterns of its LED light. Special badges were used to selectively seed the infection to some visitor, after which it was allowed to spread among the other visitors.
Real-time visualizations of the interaction network were located throughout the exhibition. In these visualizations the infected badges were shown as green marks, and infected as red marks. The system also involved a reactive part with audio-visual effects triggered by the proximity of infected badges.
The following is an extract from the April 16 journal on the national Irish TV (RTE) that should give you an idea of the exhibition in general and the dramatic framing of the tag distribution process, as well as some of the reactive features of the deployment.
The following video offers a nice overview of the complete exhibition, starting with the Infectious SocioPatterns deployment.
To wrap up this page, we would like to share some pictures from the exhibition.
We have presented a wealth of new data, analysis and results at the annual European Conference on Complex Systems ECCS’14 that was held in Lucca from Sept. 22 to 26, 2014. Contributed talks were given by A. Barrat, M. Génois, C. Vestergaard and L. Gauvin. R. Mastrandrea also presented preliminary results at the TNETS’14 satellite.
We have published a new paper in PLoS ONE describing the contact patterns among students in a French high school in two different years.
The aggregated contact networks and contact matrices show a clear structure, with much larger values on the diagonal (corresponding to contacts within each class). In addition, we perform a longitudinal analysis of the data on two very different timescales and we show the high stability of the contact patterns across days and across years: the statistical distributions of numbers and durations of contacts are the same in different periods, and we observe a very high similarity of the contact matrices measured in different days or different years. We investigate the stability of contact networks in more details through the similarity of neighbourhoods of single individuals in different days, showing that the contacts of each individual vary substantially in different days, but much less than in null models in which contacts are renewed at random from one day to the next. The observed values of these similarities are similar in the two data sets corresponding to two different years, and can thus be considered as a feature to be included in realistic models of human contacts in such an environment.
We moreover release the corresponding time-resolved datasets. The datasets are available here as a tab-separated list of contacts during 20-second intervals of the data collection.
As each year, SocioPatterns members have presented new results at the NetSci conference (this year in Berkeley).