Contact patterns in a high school: a comparison between data collected using wearable sensors, contact diaries and friendship surveys

R. Mastrandrea, J. Fournet, A. Barrat, PLoS ONE 10(9):e0136497 (2015)

Given their importance in shaping social networks and determining how information or transmissible diseases propagate in a population, interactions between individuals are the subject of many data collection efforts. To this aim, different methods are commonly used, ranging from diaries and surveys to decentralised infrastructures based on wearable sensors. These methods have each advantages and limitations but are rarely compared in a given setting. Moreover, as surveys targeting friendship relations might suffer less from memory biases than contact diaries, it is interesting to explore how actual contact patterns occurring in day-to-day life compare with friendship relations and with online social links. Here we make progresses in these directions by leveraging data collected in a French high school and concerning (i) face-to-face contacts measured by two concurrent methods, namely wearable sensors and contact diaries, (ii) self-reported friendship surveys, and (iii) online social links. We compare the resulting data sets and find that most short contacts are not reported in diaries while long contacts have a large reporting probability, and that the durations of contacts tend to be overestimated in the diaries. Moreover, measured contacts corresponding to reported friendship can have durations of any length but all long contacts do correspond to a reported friendship. On the contrary, online links that are not also reported in the friendship survey correspond to short face-to-face contacts, highlighting the difference of nature between reported friendships and online links. Diaries and surveys suffer moreover from a low sampling rate, as many students did not fill them, showing that the sensor-based platform had a higher acceptability. We also show that, despite the biases of diaries and surveys, the overall structure of the contact network, as quantified by the mixing patterns between classes, is correctly captured by both networks of self-reported contacts and of friendships, and we investigate the correlations between the number of neighbors of individuals in the three networks. Overall, diaries and surveys tend to yield a correct picture of the global structural organization of the contact network, albeit with much less links, and give access to a sort of backbone of the contact network corresponding to the strongest links, i.e., the contacts of longest cumulative durations.


URL: http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0136497

PDF: http://www.plosone.org/article/fetchObject.action?uri=info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0136497&representation=PDF

BIBTEX:

@article{10.1371/journal.pone.0136497,
    author = {Mastrandrea, Rossana AND Fournet, Julie AND Barrat, Alain},
    journal = {PLoS ONE},
    publisher = {Public Library of Science},
    title = {Contact Patterns in a High School: A Comparison between Data Collected Using Wearable Sensors, Contact Diaries and Friendship Surveys},
    year = {2015},
    month = {09},
    volume = {10},
    url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0136497},
    pages = {e0136497},
    number = {9},
    doi = {10.1371/journal.pone.0136497}
}        

PUBLICATIONS

Recalibrating disease parameters for increasing realism in modeling epidemics in closed settings
School closure policies at municipality level for mitigating influenza spread: a model-based evaluation
Contact diaries versus wearable proximity sensors in measuring contact patterns at a conference: method comparison and participants’ attitudes
Impact of spatially constrained sampling of temporal contact networks on the evaluation of the epidemic risk
How to Estimate Epidemic Risk from Incomplete Contact Diaries Data?
Quantifying social contacts in a household setting of rural Kenya using wearable proximity sensors
Epidemic risk from friendship network data: an equivalence with a non-uniform sampling of contact networks
Compensating for population sampling in simulations of epidemic spread on temporal contact networks
Enhancing the evaluation of pathogen transmission risk in a hospital by merging hand-hygiene compliance and contact data: a proof-of-concept study
Contact patterns in a high school: a comparison between data collected using wearable sensors, contact diaries and friendship surveys
Data on face-to-face contacts in an office building suggest a low-cost vaccination strategy based on community linkers
Is Web Content a Good Proxy for Real-Life Interaction? A Case Study Considering Online and Offline Interactions of Computer Scientists
Combining High-Resolution Contact Data with Virological Data to Investigate Influenza Transmission in a Tertiary Care Hospital
Mental health and social networks in early adolescence: A dynamic study of objectively-measured social interaction behaviors
Mitigation of infectious disease at school: targeted class closure vs school closure
How memory generates heterogeneous dynamics in temporal networks
Contact patterns among high school students
Detecting the Community Structure and Activity Patterns of Temporal Networks: A Non-Negative Tensor Factorization Approach
Measuring contact patterns with wearable sensors: methods, data characteristics and applications to data-driven simulations of infectious diseases
Bootstrapping under constraint for the assessment of group behavior in human contact networks
Immunization strategies for epidemic processes in time-varying contact networks
Activity clocks: spreading dynamics on temporal networks of human contact
Gender homophily from spatial behavior in a primary school: a sociometric study
Estimating Potential Infection Transmission Routes in Hospital Wards Using Wearable Proximity Sensors
Empirical temporal networks of face-to-face human interactions
New Insights and Methods for Predicting Face-To-Face Contacts
Time-varying Social Networks in a Graph Database – A Neo4j Use Case
Temporal networks of face-to-face human interactions
An infectious disease model on empirical networks of human contact: bridging the gap between dynamic network data and contact matrices
Fingerprinting temporal networks of close-range human proximity
Digital Epidemiology
Random Walks on Temporal Networks
The making of Sixty-Nine Days Of Close Encounters At The Science Gallery.
High-Resolution Measurements of Face-to-Face Contact Patterns in a Primary School.
Simulation of an SEIR Infectious Disease Model on the Dynamic Contact Network of Conference Attendees.
On the Dynamics of Human Proximity for Data Diffusion in Ad-Hoc Networks.
Close Encounters in a Pediatric Ward: Measuring Face-to-Face Proximity and Mixing Patterns with Wearable Sensors.
What’s in a Crowd? Analysis of Face-to-Face Behavioral Networks.
Wearable Sensor Networks for Measuring Face-to-Face Contact Patterns in Healthcare Settings.
Social Dynamics in Conferences: Analysis of Data from the Live Social Semantics Application.
Providing Enhanced Social Interaction Services for Industry Exhibitors at large Medical Conferences.
Dynamics of Person-to-Person Interactions from Distributed RFID Sensor Networks.
Semantics, Sensors, and the Social Web: The Live Social Semantics Experiments.
The Live Social Semantics Application: a Platform for Integrating Face-to-Face Presence with On-Line Social Networking
Live Social Semantics
High Resolution Dynamical Mapping of Social Interactions With Active RFID.